Sunday, December 8, 2019

The Dream free essay sample

â€Å"Hello class. My name is Miss Larkin and I’m going to be your teacher today,† the five-year old fantasizer fluttered to her stuffed friends. The day I found an old whiteboard in my basement was the day my imagination ran wild. To adults it may have only looked like chicken scratch, but to me it was my aspiration dancing across the board and throughout my imagination. I continued to prance around my room addressing myself as Miss Larkin and eventually upgraded my classmates from lifeless animals to family members. My penmanship had to be just perfect, dotted with a heart on the i. The feeling of having a red pen in my hand sent chills down my spine as I continued to grade the papers of my students. Teachers are protagonists in my eyes; they are all unique people with different methods I will learn to use and incorporate in my â€Å"classroom† teachings. I realize I cannot set my goals and dreams on the basis of others and I need to achieve things for myself. I will only accomplish my goal in being happy when I am able to live my life for myself and still able to love and support others. A college education will prepare me for a professional career by providing a more advanced course curriculum, opportunities on the job training, and enhancement of communication and socialization skills. I believe that a college education is a very important asset when seeking a professional career. In this day and age, a high school education is not enough for the demanding workforce. A high school education alone is only an introduction to the educational background that I will need to prepare myself for success. With strength, determination, and a college education, I will broaden my knowledge of future aspirations as I work toward accomplishing my career goals. My chosen career path to become an anesthesiologist has been an ongoing source of personal inspiration and growth. It could be a great connection to others as well as a source of giving and receiving knowledge. My parents inspired me to become a pharmacist by having such high expectations of me. They also worked hard to give me the best education they could. However, I want to go my own way instead of following the path my parents want me to go down. I want to be happy in what I do, and with what I can accomplish as an individual aspiring to be an anesthesiologist. To be happy regardless of what I choose to do, to graduate from college, and to further my education to become an anesthesiologist are my goals for the next five years. Those are my goals I believe that would help me become successful in my future life. There are many people who have achieved their goals. I know that I still have a lot to do and a long way to go in order to reach my goals.

Sunday, December 1, 2019

The Dark Genius Of The Short Story free essay sample

Essay, Research Paper Many writers have made great parts to the universe of literature. Mark Twain introduced Americans to life on the Mississippi. Jack London told of the bravery of many on the Alaskan Frontier. Another writer that made an influence on literature is Edgar Allan Poe. Poe is known as the male parent of the American short narrative. To understand the literary parts of Edgar Allan Poe, one must look at his early life, his literary life, and a sum-up of two of his celebrated plants. Edgar Allan Poe was born in Boston, Massachusetts on January 19, 1809 ( Stern xi ) . He was born to a southern household that was in a going company of histrions ( Marks 2 ) . His male parent, David Poe, was from a Baltimore household. He was an histrion by profession but his household would state he made a calling out of imbibing, non moving. Soon after Edgar Allan Poe was born, he left his household. We will write a custom essay sample on The Dark Genius Of The Short Story or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Poe # 8217 ; s female parent, Elizabeth Arnold Poe, was a widow at the age of 18 ( Porges 32 ) . Two old ages after his birth, she died of TB ( Stern xi ) . When his female parent died, Poe was adopted by John Allan ( Stern xi ) at the goad of Mr. Allan # 8217 ; s married woman. In 1815, John Allan moved his household to England. While at that place, Poe was sent to private schools which he described as dark, antediluvian, mazes ( Stern, Edgar Allen Poe Visitor for the Night of Time 42 ) . In the spring of 1826, Poe entered the University of Virginia. There he studied Spanish, Gallic, Italian, and Latin. He had an first-class pedant record, but he got into troubles about at one time. Mr. Allan did non supply him with the money to pay for his fees and other necessities. Poe was confused and homesick. He learned to play cards and started imbibing. Soon he was in debt over two thousand dollars. Poe discovered that he could notClint Fiore 2 depend upon Allan for fiscal support. His Foster male parent refused to pay his debts, and Poe had to retreat from the University ( Haines 62 ) . In May of 1827, Poe enlisted in the ground forces as a common soldier. He did this under the name of Edgar A. Perry ( Porges 43 ) . He was stationed on Sullivan # 8217 ; s Island in Charleston Harbor for over a twelvemonth. Poe adapted really good to military subject and rapidly rose to the rank of regimental sergeant major. After a piece, he got tired of the same day-to-day modus operandi involved in military life. Poe wrote on a regular basis to Mr. Allan. He met with Mr. Allan after the decease of Mrs. Allan in February of 1829. With Allan # 8217 ; s support, he received his discharge and enlisted in West Point on July 1, l830 ( Stern xii ) . While at West Point, Mr. Allan, who had remarried, continued in non supplying Poe with adequate money. Poe decided to hold himself kicked out of school. Cuting categories and ignoring orders were his solutions ( Porges 44 ) . He was court-martialed for disregard of responsibilities in January, 1831, and left West Point the following month ( Stern xii ) . Poe was great in three different Fieldss, and in each 1 he made a repute that would give any adult male a high topographic point in literary history. Poe wrote great short narratives, celebrated non merely in his ain state, but all over the universe ( Stern, Edgar Allen Poe Visitor from the Night of Time 12 ) . Hawthorne, Irving, Balzac, Bierce, Crane, Hemingway and other authors have given us memorable short narratives ; but none has produced so great a figure of celebrated and unforgettable illustrations, so many narratives that continue, Clint Fiore 3 despite altering criterions to be read and reprinted once more and once more throughout the universe ( Porges 15 ) . Poe was the male parent of the modern short narrative, and the modern detective narrative ( Porges 19 ) . In 1831, Poe succeeded in printing a new edition of his verse form entitled, Poems. Poe was now in great trouble. He went to New York, but could happen no occupation at that place. Finally he took safety with his aunt, Mrs. Clemm, in Baltimore. There he decided to seek employment and do his life by composing. Failing to acquire attending with his verse forms, he decided to get down composing short narratives. Poe competed in a competition for the best short narrative in 1831 ( Stern xii ) . The award was offered by Phil-Saturday Courier. Because he did non win the award, Poe started on an ambitious undertaking. He decided to be after a series of narratives told by members of a literary group. He found no publishing house for his narratives, and entered the competition once more in June of 1835. This timehe sent one verse form and six narratives ( Porges 46 ) . His narrative, # 8 220 ; Ms. Found in a Bottle, # 8221 ; won, and he received one hundred dollars for it ( Porges 46 ) . Through the influence of one of the Judgess, John P. Kennedy, Poe became employed as an editor of the Southern Literary Messenger, published in Richmond ( Stern xiii ) . Under Poe # 8217 ; s editorship, the Messenger # 8217 ; s circulation rose from 500 to 3500. While in Richmond, Poe married his cousi n, Virginia, who was non rather 14 old ages old. Poe was fired from the Messenger in January of 1837 ( austere twelve ) . Poe so went to New York, where he was unsuccessful. In the summer of 1838, he moved to Philadelphia. While in Philadelphia, he worked as the editor of both Burton’s Gentleman’s Magazine and Graham’s Magazine ( Stern xii ) . Even though he won a one hundred dollar award for â€Å"The Gold Bug† ( Porges 47 ) , he moved to New York. Poe found a occupation in New York as an helper editor for the Evening Mirror. This was where â€Å"The Raven† foremost appeared on January 29, 1845. The verse form instantly caught the imaginativeness of the public andClint Fiore 4 was reprinted all over the state and even abroad in all sorts of newspapers and magazines, but Poe pocketed merely a few dollars for his verse form ( Marks 2 ) . The twelvemonth of 1845 was a lucky twelvemonth for Poe. He published a aggregation of his Tales and an edition of his verse form named The Raven and Other Poems. He besides became the editor of the hebdomadal Broadway Journal. Poe broke down when Virginia died in January of 1848 ( Porges 49 ) . In 1849, Poe died in Baltimore ( Stern xiv ) . Alternatively of truly living, he took safety from the physical universe in the private universe of his dreams-in other words-in the universe of his narratives ( Marks 2 ) . # 8221 ; In the # 8220 ; Masque of the Red Death # 8221 ; , Poe uses his imaginativeness throughout the narrative. A pestilence has devastated the full state. It takes merely half an hr for the disease to run it? s class. At first one feels crisp strivings and giddiness. Then one starts shed blooding at the pores. The disease consequences in decease. Prince Prospero has ordered one 1000 Godheads and ladies to the deep privacy of one of his abbeys. The edifice was built by the Prince and is filled with his alien decorations. It is sealed from the outside universe by a immense wall with Fe Gatess. Inside the edifice are terpsichoreans, instrumentalists, and everything they need in order to remain secluded until the pestilence runs its class. After six months of privacy, the Prince decides to keep a cloaked ball. The ball is held in a suite with seven suites. Each room is decorated in a individual colour. The last room is decorated in ruddy. Within this room stands a immense clock that strikes the hr with a heavy clank. The suites are really crowded for the ball. At the shot of midnight, a invitee is seen in a costume of the ruddy decease itself and this frightens the other invitees. ThePrince is angered at what he believes to be a practical gag. He orders the alien seized and hanged from the c renelations. Prince Prospero follows the alien into the ruddy chamber. It is at that place that Prince Prospero falls dead at the pess of the alien. The others capture the unknown individual in the costume. To their horror they find there is no populating signifier in the costume. One by one they die until no 1 else remains. Death is king of all ( Porges 85 ) . The horrorClint Fiore 5 abysmal darkness, and absolute weakness bechancing the victims are described with graphic truth in narratives such as? The Fall of the House of Usher, ? ? The Cask of Amontillado, ? and? The Premature Burial? ( Marks 4 ) . # 8221 ; In # 8220 ; The Fall of the House of Usher, # 8221 ; the storyteller visits his insane friend, Roderick Usher. Usher # 8217 ; s house is immense and glooming. His twin sister, Madeline, gets ill and dies. The storyteller and Usher topographic point her in a grave in the cellar of Usher # 8217 ; s house. What they do non recognize is that she is still hardly alive. Usher keeps on hearing sounds over the following twosome of yearss. The 7th twenty-four hours after Madeline # 8217 ; s decease, a bad storm appears. The storyteller and Usher open the door of the storyteller # 8217 ; s room and Madeline falls on Usher. They both die. The storyteller so leaves the house. As he rides off, the house collapses to the floor ( Haines 21 ) . The Dark Genius of the Short Story Clint FioreE2Pre-Ap-8December 2, 1998 Clint FioreE2Pre-AP8December 2, 1998 The Dark Genius of the Short StoryThesis Sentence: To understand Poe? s parts to the fullest, we must look at his life, literary calling, and a sum-up of two of his celebrated plants. I. Early Life of Edgar Allen PoeII. Literary Career of Edgar Allen PoeIII. Hagiographas of Edgar Allen PoeA. ? Masque of the Red Death? B. ? Fall of the House of Usher? Clint FioreE2Pre-AP8December 2, 1998 BibliographyHaines, Charles. Edgar Allen Poe His Hagiographas and Influence. New York: Franklin Watts Inc. , 1947. Marks, Thomas. Poe, American Poet. hypertext transfer protocol: www.epoeindextml. April 6, 1996. Porges, Irwin. Edgar Allen Poe. Philadelphia: Chilton Books, 1963. Stern, Philip Van Doren. Edgar Allen Poe. New York: The Viking Press, 1945. Stern, Philip Van Doren. Edgar Allen Poe Visitor from the Night of Time. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. , 1973.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

5 tips healthcare recruiters dont want you to find out

5 tips healthcare recruiters dont want you to find out Healthcare recruiters are facing one of the largest hiring uphill battles in recent memory, which leaves more negotiating room on the table for job seekers looking to get into the healthcare industry. Healthcare recruiters are dealing with a qualified workforce shortage in numbers that haven’t been seen previously. Hospitals and healthcare systems have been expanding, planned investments are coming to fruition, and an aging workforce that needs to be replaced are all adding onto the plate of addition hires that healthcare recruiters need to make. As a new entry into the job seeking realm, you might be wondering about some tips or tricks that you could use to help leverage your experience and skillset to get a new job in the healthcare industry. HospitalCareers.com recently published an article titled â€Å"5 Secrets Healthcare Recruiters Don’t Want You To Know, which contains a wealth of tips to help new job seekers in their healthcare career job search. Use this resou rce to learn some tips and tricks that healthcare recruiters don’t want you to find out about when negotiating in your job search.Here’s a look at the 5 tips healthcare recruiters don’t want you to find out:Qualified job applicants per job posting are decliningWhile the healthcare industry has been steadily adding jobs at a faster rate than any other industry, qualified candidates who apply to these recent job postings are declining. This means that the time it takes to fill a recent job posting is rising, which costs healthcare recruiters and healthcare systems more money to fill each position. In addition, the number of baby boomers who are retiring increases each year with once-filled positions now needing new hires to combat rising turnover rates.New healthcare job seekers can leverage the rising number of open positions by catering their resumes and cover letters to match each open position or position category. This helps separate you from the rest of the applications that often feel manufactured or duplicated without much care between each position.Salaries are on the riseAs the demand for qualified healthcare job seekers rises, salaries and additional benefits packages are rising over time as well. Healthcare recruiters are taking drastic measures to attract new talent to their open positions and job seekers are being rewarded for their tailored education and experience in the healthcare industry.Job seekers can leverage the recent upward trend of salaries and compensation packages by highlighting how their skill set would make them a stronger fit for the open position than some of the lesser-qualified candidates that a healthcare recruiter might be considering.Hiring budgets are getting tighterEven though new healthcare jobs are being posted faster than healthcare recruiters can fill them, hiring budgets are getting tighter each year. Healthcare recruiting managers want to decrease the amount of time and resources they spend each year on filling open job postings, which creates a struggle for healthcare recruiters. Increasingly, healthcare recruiters need to fill positions with qualified applicants who will remain with the hospital or healthcare system for the long term so that they can decrease the costly turnover ratio.A job is a commitment between both the employer and employee. New job seekers can use the knowledge of tighter hiring budgets to convey their commitment to the company for the long term, which will help separate themselves from those candidates who will jump ship at the first chance.Niche job boards account for most recruitmentIncreasingly niche job boards account for more qualified recruiting than standard job sites. Some of the largest job board sites like Indeed, CareerBuilder, and Monster are increasingly littered with spam and job postings that make it difficult to separate qualified candidates from spam candidates. Some of the largest job board sites allow candidates to upload their re sume and then spam applications to any job they feel they might be qualified for without an in-depth look at the job requirements or details.This means that healthcare recruiters are increasingly turning to niche related job boards to hire more qualified candidates and narrow down their pool of applicants. With the increased restrictions mentioned above for healthcare recruiters, job seekers can increase their chance of earning a new position by using niche specific job boards.Applicant tracking systems are phasing out qualified applicantsAs more organizations switch to large applicant tracking systems, more qualified applicants are being phased out unintentionally. Applicant tracking systems help narrow down the field of prospective applicants based on different criteria set out by the recruiter. Filling out these applicant tracking systems takes more time than simply clicking on a potential job posting, and qualified applicants are deciding to skip them entirely. The thinking from those who skip these applicant tracking systems is that they can fill out a great quantity of potential job postings, than fill out a quality application.This leaves room for those qualified job seekers who don’t mind filling out these detailed applicant tracking systems and showcase a prime example of quality over quantity, something that every healthcare recruiter wants to see. New healthcare career job seekers can separate themselves from those individuals who choose to apply elsewhere, and be a part of the smaller pool of applicants that a healthcare recruiter has to sift through.Well there you have it, 5 tips healthcare recruiters don’t want you to find out when attempting to secure a new job in the healthcare industry. Moving forward in your journey to securing a new position, you can be confident that you have additional knowledge that will make your job search go a little easier.About the author:Ryan Bucci is a Content Strategist with HospitalCareers. Hospital Careers is the leading platform for healthcare and hospital jobs with over 25,000 job postings, career advice, and career insights.

Friday, November 22, 2019

Forming Plurals with s

Forming Plurals with s Forming Plurals with ’s Forming Plurals with ’s By Maeve Maddox This reader’s lament prompted the recent spate of apostrophe posts: Could you please do a post on possessives versus plurals? Im seeing this mistake more and more, to the point where I saw someone use an apostrophe for a plural on a billboard. Because people are easily confused by the apostrophe, I have treated possession separately: The Singular Possessive Apostrophe The Plural Possessive Apostrophe Now, I’ll focus on the reader’s main concern: the use of the apostrophe to form a plural. Some English speakers associate the apostrophe so strongly with the letter s that they compulsively hurl it at every s that occurs at the end of a word. For example: 20 Craft Idea’s for Kid’s Three Barber’s on Duty My Cat Love’s Me All Product’s Updated Frequently Puppie’s For Sale Open Sunday’s Our Preschooler’s Can Read In deference to another reader, who has asked me to supply corrected versions of cited errors, here are the correct forms: 20 Craft Ideas for Kids Three Barbers on Duty My Cat Loves Me All Products Updated Frequently Puppies For Sale Open Sundays Our Preschoolers Can Read I wish that I could state the rule that one must never ever use an apostrophe to form a plural. All I can say is that one must almost never ever do so. Certainly, an apostrophe is never used to form the plural of an ordinary noun. Someone who sports a bumper sticker that says, â€Å"Our preschooler’s can read† or letters a sign that says â€Å"Puppie’s for sale,† has a feeble understanding of how noun plurals are formed in English: one preschooler, two preschoolers one puppy, two puppies Someone who embroiders â€Å"My cat love’s me† on a cushion has never learned the difference between nouns and verbs. Third person singular verbs in English end with s: He runs, she sings, it barks. Apostrophes are never used with verbs. We can postulate a rule about words that end in s: If a word ends in the letter s, don’t put an apostrophe anywhere near it, unless you wish to indicate possession. So, when is it all right to form a plural with ’s? Usually, the only time to use ’s to form a plural is when pluralizing letters and symbols like and %. Authorities differ. The Plural of Capital Letters The Chicago Manual of Style states the rule that most capitals may be pluralized by adding s without an apostrophe and gives this example: â€Å"Children need to master the three Rs.† The AP Stylebook, on the other hand, recommends using the apostrophe to form the plural of all capital letters and gives the example â€Å"the three R’s.† The AP recommendation makes practical sense because some capital letters do require an apostrophe for clarity. Compare: Your Ss, Is, and Us are illegible. Your S’s, I’s, and U’s are illegible. The Plural of Lowercase Letters Lowercase letters require an apostrophe for clarity. Compare: There are two is in liaison. There are two i’s in liaison. The Plural of Numerals Numerals form their plurals by adding s only: He bowled three 300s. His parents grew up in the 1950s. Both CMOS and AP agree that numerals may form the plural without an apostrophe. OxfordDictionaries online does allow the use of the apostrophe to show the plurals of single numbers: â€Å"Find all the number 7’s.† The Penguin Guide to Punctuation (first published 1997), states that American usage calls for an apostrophe with a date and admonishes British speakers: â€Å"You should not adopt this practice unless you are specifically writing for an American audience.† The use of an apostrophe with a pluralized date may once have been American practice, but now both the Chicago Manual of Style and the AP Stylebook state that dates are pluralized without an apostrophe: â€Å"the 1950s.† The trend globally is against the use of the apostrophe to form the plural of anything. Using an apostrophe to form the plural of a word, letter, symbol, or numeral is justified only if leaving it out would interfere with reading comprehension. I’ve yet to exhaust the topic of apostrophe use, but this will have to do for now. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Punctuation category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:5 Uses of Infinitives8 Types of Parenthetical PhrasesTitled versus Entitled

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Constitutional & Administrative Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Constitutional & Administrative Law - Essay Example Political scientists refer to this law as "Organic", due to the fact that it has been "evolving" over time from its medieval origins. It has been observed that, this flexibility makes it responsive to political and social change, especially through political principles expressed in conventions. Until recently there was no modern statute or document that attempted to codify the rights of citizens in the UK, despite the fact that there is the tradition of freedom of speech and other rights in the UK, common law precedents being the main source of "rights". Common law has been remedied in recent years, with the incorporation of some important written sources, such as European Union law and the European Convention on Human Rights. These laws has formally granted the citizens of UK with rights that were previously lacking in the legal system. These sources are enacted in the European Communities Act 1972 and Human Rights Act 1998, respectively. Different opinions has come up from people on different walks of life on these changes. Some argue that these developments, and the Labour government's reforms from 1997, have improved the constitution, despite the lack of a central, written, entrenched constitutional document. Labour's reform programme has conducted many reforms, including the Human Rights Act, devolution to Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, partial reform of the House of Lords and a Freedom of Information Act. Parliamentary Sovereignty, is often called as a particularly elusive concept, is the paramount Principle in the United Kingdom's unwritten constitution and Dicey's (Dicey, AV, An Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution) legal theory holds that, "Parliament has the right to make or unmake any law whatever"; and that "no person or body is recognised by the law of England as having a right to override or set aside the legislation of Parliament." Sir William Wade (Wade HWR, "The Basis of Legal Sovereignty") takes the definition further by stating that: "there is one and only one, limit to Parliament's legal power: it cannot detract from its own continuing sovereignty." (Jennings, I, (1959), The Law and the Constitution, 5thedn, chapter 4) In the recent times, the political supremacy of Parliament in UK has been affected by membership of international organisations such as NATO and the IMF, the legal sovereignty, in that Parliament alone makes the law, has notionally, remained absolute. The introduction of the European Communities Act 1972 (ECA 1972) and the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA 1998) into our domestic law, has to a large extent raised questions about the consequences on that 'absolute' legal sovereignty. Here let us consider the constitutional implications of both these Acts and analyse their impact on the principle of Parliamentary Sovereignty. With the inclusion of UK in the European Community, by virtue of the Treaty of Accession in 1972, it so happened that, Parliament recognised that as a condition of membership, thereby, it had necessarily limited its own sovereign authority by effectively 'pooling sovereignty' with the other Member states.( Costa v ENEL and Amministrazione delle Finanze dello

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

David Foster Wallace is on YouTube giving the commencement address at Essay

David Foster Wallace is on YouTube giving the commencement address at Kenyon College, a speech that when published, is called T - Essay Example As a function of seeking to understand this particular speech and a more effective manner, the following analysis will take a nuanced approach, incorporating criticism, review, and analysis of Wallace is pronouncements in the hopes that the reader will gain a more informed understanding with respect to the approach that he champions and the relevance of the information that he presents. Wallace starts by discussing the experience of life; exhorting the listener to â€Å"construct meaning and create relevance† from the otherwise mundane and seemingly pointless activities that all human beings, regardless of their socioeconomic status, race, or ethnic origin, must engage as a function of living. From there, the author delves into the issue of what a liberal arts education actually means; denoting that the education itself means nothing. Rather, the ultimate meaning that is derived from a liberal arts education is solely contingent upon what the individual has the potential to do with it. However, the author strongly encourages the listener to avoid a type of arrogance; maintaining critical awareness in its stead. Whereas it is true, as a Wallace states, that reality is ultimately designed with the individual experience as the only measurement through which understanding can be accomplished, seeking to define the world through such a selfish viewpoint necessarily decreases the degree of empathy and understanding that an individual might otherwise exhibit (Boswell 368). As a function of this, Wallace encourages the individual with regards to what they should pay attention to; defining the debate within oneself and utilizing the liberal arts education as a means of affecting this. As such, not becoming detached, not refusing reality because it is painful, sad, monotonous, or mundane, and continually exercising a right and will towards thinking come to be the prime mechanisms through which Wallace point of view can most reasonably be affected (Veggian 99). In effect, what Wallace is promoting is an understanding of the fact that thinking is a choice and should not be an automatic setting; albeit a choice that a liberal arts education necessarily encourages. Finally, hammering this point home further, Wallace discusses the necessity of not being lulled into a complacent routine. Rather, seeking out â€Å"thinking† and utilizing the experiences and knowledge that are gained from a liberal arts education is not only an opportunity but in fact something of a calling that each and every individual that experiences such an education and can draw upon it must necessarily engage. The irony of all of this has to do with the fact that even though each of these points is effectively expounded upon by Wallace, the author and speaker himself ultimately committed suicide in 2008 (Fest 127). Although the events surrounding his suicide remained largely misunderstood, it is the view of this particular author that Wallace was unable to ascribe to t he high standard of open-mindedness, compassion, and a sense of selflessness that he promoted to the audience within the commencement address. However, this inability upon Wallace part should not be understood as an effective dismissal of the

Sunday, November 17, 2019

The Victorian Age in Literature Essay Example for Free

The Victorian Age in Literature Essay The Victorian Age is roughly delimited by the reign of Queen Victoria, who ascended the throne of Great Britain on 1937, and died in 1901. For the sake of convenience the Victorian age of literature is bracketed by the period 1830 to 1901. Both in terms of literature and culture the Victorian period is highly distinctive. For such a characteristic period to correspond to the reign of a monarch, and considering the inordinate length of it, suggests somehow that the character of the monarch has left its imprint therein. But this is very far from being the case. In theory Britain was a constitutional monarchy, which meant that the queen was supreme ruler, and was aided by an executive arm, which was a Parliament that is democratically elected. This was, however, only on paper. In practice the bourgeoisie were entrenched in the Parliament and ruled the land as an oligarchy. The entrenchment of the middle classes in England was a process begun with the signing of the Magna Carta in 1215, in which the nobles wrenched significant powers from the crown, then in the form of the unpopular King John. Both the nobles and the crown, however, met a new challenge in the form of the merchant and middle classes after the Protestant Reformation, which was the basis of the English Civil War, fought in the seventeenth century. The result of this war was a monarchy thoroughly emasculated and in the hands of the bourgeoisie, who began to appoint their kings from abroad, beginning with William of Orange, from Holland, who ascended the British throne as William III in the â€Å"Glorious Revolution† of 1688. In 1714 George Louis, Elector of Hanover, was invited to sit on the British throne, which began the long lineage of the House of Hanover, of which Queen Victoria was descended. In this wise the queen was barely English, and had hardly any inclination to become one, evidenced by the links continued to be held with the continent. She became merely a sentimentalized figurehead, as Britain forged ahead, during her reign, to become the economic and imperial power of world. She was ultimately conferred the title of Empress of India, at the time when India was the Jewel in the Crown of a world empire. But she identified little with the aspirations of the age that she labeled. The emancipation of woman was a central tenet of Victorianism, which she opposed vehemently. She called it â€Å"mad, wicked folly†, and thought that these ladies â€Å"ought to get a good whipping† (qtd. in Strachey 409). The advance of capitalism and the Industrial Revolution forms the backdrop to the Victorian age. The prelude to this was the rise of science and rationalism at the expense of faith. The Enlightenment is the name given to this movement in the initial phase, especially in relation to the conscious intellectual movement in this direction inspired by the likes of Bayle and Voltaire in France. It venerated reason, the experimental method of Bacon, the mechanics of Newton, and the ideals of the Classical world of ancient Rome and Greece. This movement eventually bred a reaction in Germany, through the likes of Herder, Schiller and Goethe, who emphasized passion and spontaneity, as against cold reason. The movement came to be labeled Romanticism, and found a vigorous growth on English soil too through Wordsworth, Coleridge, Byron, Shelley, Keats and others. Many have characterized the Victorian ethos as a compromise between these two extremes, and found expression in a philosophy known as Utilitarianism. Jeremy Bentham and James Mill were the advocates of this philosophy. Bentham coined the motto â€Å"the greatest good of the greatest number† to encapsulate the philosophy (qtd. in Parekh 62). It is what Chesterton describes as the â€Å"great Victorian compromise†. But Victorian literature, as a whole, is not a reflection of Utilitarianism, but is rather a protest against it. Chesterton compares such a protest with the popular uprising of the French Revolution. If the stifling effects of science and industry caused the people to revolt in France, in Britain it was the poets and wordsmiths who did so. In fact this was the only avenue of protest left open in Britain, where the captains of industry has already seized all other social institutions, which is the very reason why the Industrial Revolution took place in Britain and not anywhere else. The â€Å"enclosures† had taken land away from the people, leaving them just as powerless as the queen on her throne. Industry herded them into the cities and made them captive to Smith’s â€Å"division of labor†. Literature was the means to revolution, according to Chesterton, on which he elaborates: This trend of the English Romantics to carry out the revolutionary idea not savagely in works, but very wildly indeed in words, had several results; the most important of which was this. It started English literature after the Revolution with a sort of bent towards independence and eccentricity, which in the brighter wits became individuality, and in the duller ones, Individualism. (5) In this way the revolution is said to have succeeded, because it was able to mould the modern character so that it is able to deal with modernity. This is a triumph not to be belittled, and so, continues Chesterton, â€Å"Verbally considered, Carlyles French Revolution was more revolutionary than the real French Revolution† (Ibid). EARLY PERIOD (1830-1848) Though coming well before the Victorian period, the novels of Jane Austen must be considered as a beginning, and a forerunner to proper Victorian literature. They seem to be merely unassuming domestic dramas, written from the very limited perspective of a provincial lady. In fact, Jane Austen had very little experience of life beyond the confines of rural England, and her works are unencumbered by the great philosophies that were then vying with each other for the domination of the world. She was neither a rationalist, nor a Romanticist. For her heroines, life’s one concern is to secure a good match, one that combines a good income with social esteem. The overriding message of her novels seems to be that to obtain the ideal match the woman must possess both sense and sensibility, i. e. both reason and passion. In fact, Sense and Sensibility is the title of her first novel, establishing her mode. As such we are able to identify it as a precursor to the Victorian compromise. This is not to call her heroines Utilitarian, in the sense of being scheming social climbers. Austen’s novels must be seen as celebration of domestic life, as standing opposed to the insidious infiltration of ideas, in which sense both the rationalists and the Romanticists are guilty. Such a resistance to rational frameworks characterizes nearly all of Victorian literature, and Oscar Wilde and the Aesthetes were still engaged in the same towards the end of the Victorian period. From another point of view, it is the imposition of the woman’s perspective into a world that is otherwise overburdened with the male. Austen must also be credited with inventing the modern novel, which Chesterton describes as a â€Å"feminine art†, and the function of which is to distinguish character, rather than tell a story (39). All the great Victorian novelists follow Austen in this sense. Thomas Babbington Macaulay is another writer who cannot be left out in any consideration of Victorian literature, even though he clearly comes before. He is the true prophet of progress, and thus the harbinger of the Victorian ethos. As a historian the overriding task of Macaulay is to delineate â€Å"progress†. He tackles history with an overwhelming bias towards the Whiggish faction, the party that upheld the liberal tradition and allied itself to the moneyed middle classes. He upheld Bentham’s Utilitarianism, but was by no means cold and calculating. Instead he promoted a vision that is broad, captivating and awe-inspiring. He is the undeniable single influence behind Victorian literature, even though not all his influence was wholesome. Of him Chesterton says: The chief tragedy in the trend of later literature may be expressed by saying that the smaller Macaulay conquered the larger. Later men had less and less of that hot love of history he had inherited from Scott. They had more and more of that cold science of self-interests which he had learnt from Bentham. (12) Those who practiced the hard school of science, and advocated Utilitarianism, were usually beyond the fray of literature. The leading light among them, John Stuart Mill, was an exception among them, however. He championed Smithsonian economics, and attempted to provide polish to the philosophy of Utilitarianism, yet he did so as an artist, and with profound common sense. His father was one of the founders of Utilitarianism, and Bentham was his godfather. He was educated at home under his father’s punishing regime, one that was cause of a near breakdown of the youthful Mill. It was meant that he imbibe as much classical and scientific education as possible, and Bentham was also instrumental towards this end. Mill, however, survived and went on to redefine the philosophy of Utilitarianism in a more human way. It was the wont of the Utilitarians to circumvent the truism that the freedom of one comes in the way of that of the other. If they did consider it, it was only in the larger numbers, along the principle of â€Å"the greatest good of the greatest number†. But, in his seminal essay â€Å"On Liberty†, Mill advanced the â€Å"harm principle†, in which the act of liberty is said to be virtuous only when there is no immediate harem discernable to the next: The only part of the conduct of anyone, for which he is amenable to society, is that which concerns others. In the part which merely concerns himself, his independence is, of right, absolute. Over himself, over his own body and mind, the individual is sovereign. (28) The philosophy of Mill was suspect. Nevertheless, he is heartfelt and genuine, and therefore he succeeds as a writer, and his works succeed as literature, which was highly influential in taming the hard edges of Utilitarianism. He meant it that the philosophy be not cold-headed, but warm-hearted. He points out that there is a difference between ‘happiness’ and ‘contentment’, and that Bentham confused the latter with the former. One may be content with numbers, but not happy with a guilty conscience. It is happiness that is to be sought, and cannot be had with numbers. So he says: It is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied. And if the fool, or the pig, are a different opinion, it is because they only know their own side of the question. (Mill, Utilitarianism, 281) Many commentators tend to classify Thomas Carlyle as a Romanticist, and indeed his introduction to the world of letters is through his translations of Goethe, whose Romantic ideals he championed. But Carlyle will be found to be eminently Victorian, and should indeed serve as the ideal representative of Victorianism in its early phase. The most marked characteristic of a Victorian author is that he knows instinctively something to be wrong, and gives vent to this mood in his writing. It is a remark that wholly applies to Carlyle. He is never as logical as Goethe and the Romantics. He does not insist on passion, he is merely passionate. The things that he is passionate about are derived, as if, from the sixth sense. He was impatient of all forms of speculation. â€Å"Our grand business undoubtedly is, not to see what lies dimly at a distance,† he says, â€Å"but to do what lies clearly at hand† (Carlyle, Critical, 462). He distrusts history in any form whatsoever, which might seem hypocritical seeing that his major works are predominantly history. But reading the French Revolution does not give us the impression of having read history. It is narrated as if the events were in the present, and we are supposed to be moved as if the revolution is happening, not as a report of a past occurrence. He had no rapport with the mob: â€Å"Democracy is, by the nature of it, a self-canceling business; and it gives in the long run a net result of zero† (Carlyle, Chartism, 33). Neither the mob, nor the ossified â€Å"isms† of the philosophers partake in history. Instead it is the heroic individual, moved by the immediacy of duty, who is the real author of history. â€Å"The history of the world is but the biography of great men,† he avers in On Heroes and Hero Worship (29).